主题：Managing the distributional effects of energy taxes and subsidy removal in Latin America and the Caribbean
冯奎双，马里兰大学副教授。其研究领域包括可持续生产和消费，可持续供应链，生命周期分析和情景分析方面的空间生态经济模型，侧重于研究不同空间尺度（当地，国家和全球）的能源，碳，水和土地会计。冯博士在包括PNAS，Nature Climate Change，Nature Communications，Nature Sustainability，Global Environmental Change等许多高影响力的学术期刊上发表了80多篇文章，曾担任超过20种科学同行评审期刊的审稿员。此外，他还担任多个国际同行评审期刊的副主编，客座编辑和编辑委员会成员。其研究工作获得了美国国家航空航天局，欧盟委员会，美洲开发银行，世界银行，能源基金会和国家自然科学基金会等众多国家和国际机构的资助。
Energy subsidies have been criticized due to their economic inefficiency and promotion of wasteful usage of energy and associated carbon emissions. Conversely, environmental taxes are advocated as efficient policy instruments. But removing subsidies and taxing energy can be politically challenging because vulnerable households rely on low energy prices. This study analyzes the impact of energy price hikes on different income groups using an energy-extended input-output approach. Our results show that higher-income groups benefit more from low energy prices than low-income groups when tracing both direct and indirect (supply chain) effects of energy price variations. Energy subsidies are a very expensive option to transfer income to poor households. For example, in Latin America and the Caribbean, using energy subsidies would cost about $12 to transfer $1 of income to households in the poorest quintile. Recycling a small fraction of fiscal revenues from energy subsidy removal or energy taxation could be sufficient to compensate vulnerable households from the effects of price hikes. Cash transfers to poor households and targeted subsidies for public transportation or food are the most effective measures to compensate households for welfare loss.